## An example system diagram modeled in Temoa. Such diagrams are dynamically generated with Graphviz.

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Tools for Energy Model Optimization and Analysis (Temoa) is an open source modeling framework for conducting energy system analysis. The core component of Temoa is an energy system optimization model. Such models have emerged as critical tools for technology assessment and policy analysis at scales ranging from local to global. Energy system models enable a simultaneously broad and deep assessment of technology by considering the economic and technical characteristics of individual technologies as well as their interactions within a well-defined system. The energy system is described algebraically as a network of linked processes that convert a raw energy commodity (e.g., coal, oil, biomass, uranium) into an end-use demand (e.g., lighting, transport, water heating, conditioned air), often through a series of one or more intermediate commodities (e.g., electricity, gasoline, ethanol). Each technology is defined by a set of engineering, economic, and environmental characteristics (e.g., capital cost, efficiency, emissions rate) associated with converting an energy commodity from one form to another. Technologies are linked to one another in a network via model constraints representing the allowable flow of energy commodities. The model objective is to minimize the present cost of energy supply by deploying and utilizing energy technologies and commodities over time to meet a set of end-use demands. Temoa is formulated as a linear programming problem and is implemented in Python using Pyomo, a Python-based open source software package.

The design of Temoa is intended to fulfill a unique niche within the energy modeling community by addressing two critical shortcomings: an inability to conduct third party verification of published model-based results and the difficulty of conducting rigorous uncertainty analysis with large, complex models. Temoa leverages a modern revision control system to publicly archive model source and data, which enables third party verification of all published modeling work. In addition, Temoa represents the first energy system optimization model to be designed – from its initial conceptualization – for operation within a high performance computing environment.